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Lecture 01 – Course Introduction & Chapter 1: Making Buildings

Course Introduction & Chapter 1: Making Buildings

1/15/13

Lecture Resources:

C144 L01 Introduction from Grant Adams on Vimeo.

C144 L01 Ch01 from Grant Adams on Vimeo.

Lecture Notes:

CONSTRUCTION 144

  • DIABLO VALLEY COLLEGE, SPRING 2012

INTRODUCTION

  • GRANT ADAMS
  • ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ARCHITECTURE & CONSTRUCTION
  • gadams@dvc.edu
  • OFFICE HOURS: TUESDAY 6:00 – 6:30 PM

Course Details:

  • UNITS: 3
  • PREREQUISITE: NONE
  • LOCATION: ET 120B
  • WEBSITE:  www.materialsandconstruction.com

REQUIRED TEXT:

  • FUNDAMENTALS OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION: MATERIALS AND METHODS BY: EDWARD ALLEN & JOSEPH IANO

COURSE SCHEDULE:

  • TUESDAY EVENING, 6:30 – 9:20
  • A CALENDAR AND READING SCHEDULE ARE AVAILABLE ON THE CLASS WEBSITE, PLEASE CHECK IT FREQUENTLY FOR UPDATES! YOU CAN SUBSCRIBE TO THE CALENDAR USING THE FOLLOWING LINK: (WHICH I WILL POST ON THE COURSE WEBSITE SINCE IT IS SO LONG!)
  • http://www.google.com/calendar/ical/bd4qupt84cbqkmvkah9rgv7lms%40group.calendar.google.com/public/basic.ics

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

“A study of the performance characteristics of construction materials. Covers testing concepts and procedures. Includes basic properties of metals, concrete, timber, masonry, and roofing materials with emphasis on construction applications.“

MY PHILOSOPHY

  • WHAT ARE THE MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION?
  • HOW ARE THE MATERIALS MADE?
  • HOW ARE THE MATERIALS USED?
  • HOW DOES A MATERIAL REFLECT AN ARCHITECTURAL IDEAL? WHEN IS A MATERIAL APPROPRIATE?
  • HOW CAN UNDERSTANDING HOW A BUILDING GOES TOGETHER ENHANCE YOUR ABILITY TO DESIGN/ ENGINEER A BUILDING?

YOU MUST…

  • BE EAGER TO LEARN BE PREPARED FOR CLASS BE AWARE OF YOUR SURROUNDINGS
  • IT IS LIKELY THAT YOU HAVE ALREADY COME IN CONTACT WITH THE MATERIALS WE WILL DISCUSS IN CLASS. BEING AWARE WILL HELP YOU UNDERSTAND HOW MATERIALS ARE USED!

COURSE WEBSITE

EVALUATIONS

YOUR FINAL GRADE WILL BE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING:

  • FIRST EXAM …………………………………………… 10%
  • MID-TERM EXAM ……………………………………. 15%
  • FINAL EXAM ………………………………………….. 35%
  • PROJECTS ……………………………………………… 20%
  • DISCUSSION BOARD ……………………………… 10%
  • POP QUIZZES/PARTICIPATION …………….. 10%
  • TOTAL ………………………………………………….. 100%

EXAMS

  • EXAMS WILL BE TAKEN IN CLASS ON THE DAY SCHEDULED.
  • EXAMS WILL COVER ALL MATERIAL FROM THE TEXTBOOK, LECTURES AND DISCUSSIONS.
  • EXAMS WILL BE CUMULATIVE, BUT WILL FOCUS ON UNTESTED MATERIAL.
  • THERE WILL BE NO MAKE UP EXAMS; PLEASE BE SURE TO BE IN CLASS ON THE DAY OF THE EXAM!

PROJECTS

  • EACH PROJECT WILL CORRESPOND TO THE MAJOR MATERIAL BEING DISCUSSED IN CLASS. FOR EXAMPLE, THE FIRST PROJECT WILL WORK WITH CONCRETE.
  • PROJECTS WILL INVOLVE PHYSICAL MODELING & STRUCTURAL TESTING.
  • LATE PROJECTS WILL BE GRADED DOWN ACCORDING TO THE LATE WORK POLICY (WHICH WILL BE DISCUSSED LATER)

POP-QUIZZES

  • YOU WILL NEED TO COMPLETE THE REQUIRED READING BEFORE THE START OF EACH CLASS. REQUIRED READINGS WILL BE NOTED ON THE COURSE CALENDAR BUT WILL TYPICALLY BE THE CHAPTER I WILL LECTURE ABOUT.
  • I HAVE SET A DEMANDING PACE FOR THE COURSE AND THEREFORE THERE ARE LARGE AMOUNTS OF READING BEFORE EACH LECTURE. DON’T BE DISHEARTENED THOUGH, AS THE TEXT HAS MANY IMAGES.
  • THERE WILL BE SEVERAL POP-QUIZZES DURING THE SEMESTER TO MAKE SURE YOU KEEP UP. THEY WILL ALL BE AT THE START OF LECTURE AND CANNOT BE MADE UP.

COURSE NOTEBOOK

  • YOU WILL NEED A NOTEBOOK OR SKETCHBOOK FOR THE COURSE. IT MUST BE FOR THIS SUBJECT ONLY!
  • YOU WILL USE THIS NOTEBOOK TO TAKE NOTES DURING LECTURE AND FOR DRAWING/SKETCHING CONSTRUCTION DETAILS (BOTH OUT OF THE TEXT AS YOU READ AND DURING LECTURE)
  • FOR EACH LECTURE, I WILL HAVE AT LEAST ONE SPECIFIC DRAWING FOR YOU TO MAKE.
  • YOU MUST NOT LOSE THIS NOTEBOOK! I WILL LOOK OVER THEM AT THE END OF THE SEMESTER AS PART OF YOUR PARTICIPATION GRADE FOR THE COURSE.

PARTICIPATION

  • YOUR PARTICIPATION IS IMPORTANT BOTH FOR YOURSELF AND FOR YOUR FELLOW STUDENTS.
  • CLASS BEGINS AT 6:30 PM. I EXPECT YOU TO BE IN CLASS AND READY TO LEARN.
  • PLEASE ASK QUESTIONS! IF YOU DON’T UNDERSTAND OR FIND SOMETHING CONFUSING, PLEASE SPEAK UP!
  • STUDENTS LATE OR ABSENT FROM CLASS WILL MISS VALUABLE CLASS INSTRUCTION AND WILL STILL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL COURSE MATERIALS!

PROFESSIONALISM

  • PRESENT YOURSELF, YOUR IDEAS, AND PROJECTS IN A MANNER THAT REFLECTS POSITIVELY ON YOUR IDEAS TOWARDS THE ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT.
  • THIS INCLUDES RESPECTING BASIC WORKING WORLD VALUES SUCH AS PUNCTUALITY, ORGANIZATION AND COMMITMENT TO WORK, BUT ALSO THE OPINIONS OF OTHERS, RESPECT FOR OTHER STUDENTS AND FACULTY IN THE CLASS, AND RESPECT FOR TOOLS AND FACILITIES.
  • THESE EXPECTATIONS ALSO INCLUDE UNDERSTANDING AND FOLLOWING VALUES RELATED TO THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY WORK, UPHOLDING STANDARDS OF CRAFTSMANSHIP AND PRESENTATION, AND RESPECTING STANDARDS OF ACADEMIC HONESTY AND INTEGRITY.

LATE WORK

  • LATE ASSIGNMENTS WILL BE GRADED DOWN BY ONE FULL LETTER GRADE FOR EACH CLASS PERIOD THEY ARE LATE. FOR EXAMPLE AN “A” PROJECT THAT WAS 2 PERIODS LATE WILL RECEIVE A “C.”
  • ASSIGNMENTS TURNED IN 4 PERIODS LATE (OR MORE) WILL RECEIVE A MAXIMUM OF 50% ON THE ASSIGNMENT. WORK NOT TURNED IN AT ALL WILL RECEIVE A 0%.

INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS

CONCRETE

  • Pouring Foundations
  • Form Shoring
  • Board Form Texture
  • Board Form Texture
  • Tadao Ando Honpukuji (Water Temple) Awaji, Japan 1990-1991
  • Tadao Ando Honpukuji (Water Temple) Awaji, Japan 1990-1991
  • Tadao Ando Honpukuji (Water Temple) Awaji, Japan 1990-1991
  • Tadao Ando Honpukuji (Water Temple) Awaji, Japan 1990-1991
  • Tadao Ando Honpukuji (Water Temple) Awaji, Japan 1990-1991
  • Tadao Ando Honpukuji (Water Temple) Awaji, Japan 1990-1991
  • Tadao Ando Honpukuji (Water Temple) Awaji, Japan 1990-1991
  • Tadao Ando Collezione Tokyo, Japan 1990
  • Tadao Ando Church of the Light Osaka, Osaka Prefecture, Japan 1987-1989
  • Tadao Ando Church of the Light Osaka, Osaka Prefecture, Japan 1987-1989
  • Steven Holl St. Ignatius Chapel Seattle, Washington
  • Steven Holl St. Ignatius Chapel Seattle, Washington
  • Steven Holl St. Ignatius Chapel Seattle, Washington

STEEL

  • Steel Construction
  • Steel Construction
  • Steel Construction
  • Charles & Ray Eames Case Study House #8 Los Angeles, CA
  • Charles & Ray Eames Case Study House #8 Los Angeles, CA
  • Charles & Ray Eames Case Study House #8 Los Angeles, CA
  • Charles & Ray Eames Case Study House #8 Los Angeles, CA
  • Charles & Ray Eames Case Study House #8 Los Angeles, CA

WOOD

  • Heavy Timber Construction
  • Heavy Timber Construction
  • Heavy Timber Construction
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Ledge House Maryland 1992-1996
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Ledge House Maryland 1992-1996
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Ledge House Maryland 1992-1996
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Gates Pool House Washington 1990-1997
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Gates Guest House Washington 1990-1997
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Gates Guest House Washington 1990-1997
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Blue Mountain Estate Pennsylvania
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Blue Mountain Estate Pennsylvania
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Blue Mountain Estate Pennsylvania
  • Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Blue Mountain Estate Pennsylvania

CHAPTER 1

MAKING BUILDINGS

GO INTO THE FIELD WHERE YOU CAN SEE THE MACHINES AND METHODS AT WORK THAT MAKE THE MODERN BUILDINGS, OR STAY IN CONSTRUCTION DIRECT AND SIMPLE UNTIL YOU CAN WORK NATURALLY INTO BUILDING-DESIGN FROM THE NATURE OF CONSTRUCTION.

FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT TO THE YOUNG MAN IN ARCHITECTURE, 1931

SUSTAINABILITY

  • BUILDINGS ACCOUNT FOR 30-40% OF THE WORLD’S ENERGY USE. (GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL, 2008)
  • CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF BUILDINGS ACCOUNTS FOR ONE-THIRD THIS COUNTRY’S TOTAL ENERGY USE (TWO-THIRDS OF ITS ELECTRICITY!)
  • CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION ALSO ACCOUNT FOR HALF OF OUR COUNTRY’S GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

SUSTAINABILITY

  • CAN SOMEONE DEFINE SUSTAINABILITY?

SUSTAINABILITY

“MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE PRESENT GENERATION WITHOUT COMPROMISING THE ABILITY OF FURTHER GENERATIONS TO MEET THEIR NEEDS”

SUSTAINABILITY

WHAT MIGHT WE DO TO INCREASE SUSTAINABILITY IN OUR BUILDING PRACTICES?

SUSTAINABILITY

REDUCE BUILDING ENERGY USAGE AND UTILIZE SUNLIGHT (SOLAR) AND WIND AS ENERGY SOURCES FOR OUR BUILDINGS

RE-USE EXISTING BUILDINGS INSTEAD OF TEARING THEM DOWN AND RE-BUILDING.

USE WOOD FROM SUSTAINABLE FORESTS

REDUCE VARIOUS FORMS OF POLLUTION FROM THE PROCESSES OF MAKING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BUILDING LIFE CYCLE

ORIGIN AND MANUFACTURE OF MATERIALS FOR A BUILDING

RENEWABLE OR NON-RENEWABLE? IS THE MATERIAL RECYCLED?

HOW MUCH EMBODIED ENERGY IS IN THE MATERIAL? (EMBODIED ENERGY IS HOW MUCH ENERGY IT TAKES TO PRODUCE & SHIP THE MATERIAL)

WHAT POLLUTANTS ARE DISCHARGED INTO THE ENVIRONMENT?

SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BUILDING LIFE CYCLE

CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUILDING

HOW MUCH ENERGY IS USED TO TRANSPORT THE MATERIAL TO THE SITE?

HOW MUCH ENERGY AND WATER ARE USED TO PUT THE MATERIAL INTO PLACE ON THE BUILDING SITE?

WHAT POLLUTANTS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE INSTALLATION OF THIS MATERIAL?

SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BUILDING LIFE CYCLE

USE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE BUILDING

HOW MUCH ENERGY AND WATER DOES THE BUILDING USE DURING ITS LIFETIME?

WHAT PROBLEMS OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY EXIST IN THE BUILDING?

HOW MUCH MAINTENANCE IS REQUIRED ON THE MATERIALS?

SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BUILDING LIFE CYCLE

DEMOLITION OF THE BUILDING

HOW CAN YOU DESIGN TO EXTEND THE USEFUL LIFE OF THE BUILDING TO MINIMIZE THE NEED TO TEAR IT DOWN AND BUILD NEW?

IF DEMOLITION IS THE ONLY OPTION, HOW MUCH CAN BE RECYCLED? HOW MUCH WILL POLLUTE THE ENVIRONMENT?

THE WORK OF THE DESIGN PROFESSIONAL

1. A PROPERTY OWNER HAS A DESIRE (IDEA) FOR A NEW BUILDING

2. THE OWNER ENGAGES A DESIGN PROFESSIONAL (OFTEN AN ARCHITECT & ENGINEER) TO DEVELOP A SCHEME FOR THE BUILDING. THE DESIGN PROGRESSES IN FINER LEVELS OF DETAIL AND, AFTER APPROVAL BY LOCAL PLANNING AUTHORITIES, OFTEN RESULTS IN CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS.

3. THE OWNER ENGAGES A CONTRACTOR OR CONSTRUCTION MANAGER AND THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS BEGINS.

THE WORK OF THE DESIGN PROFESSIONAL

IT IS OFTEN THE DESIGN PROFESSIONAL’S JOB TO SORT THROUGH ALL OF THE POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS TO PROPERLY ADDRESS THE NEEDS OF THE CLIENT, THE NEEDS OF THE CLIMATE, THE DESIGN IDEALS, AND THE PLANNING AUTHORITY’S EXPECTATIONS

IT IS THE INTENT OF THIS COURSE TO FAMILIARIZE YOU WITH THESE VARIOUS MATERIALS SO THAT YOU, AS DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION PROFESSIONALS, CAN MAKE INFORMED CHOICES FOR (AND WITH) YOUR CLIENTS.

ZONING ORDINANCES

WHAT IS A ZONING ORDINANCE?

ZONING ORDINANCES

GOVERN THE TYPE OF BUILDING THAT CAN BE PLACED ON A GIVEN PIECE OF LAND

RESTRICT HOW MUCH OF THE LAND MAY BE COVERED BY A BUILDING

DETERMINE HOW FAR A BUILDING MUST BE “SET-BACK” FROM ADJACENT PROPERTY LINES

DETERMINE HOW TALL THE BUILDING CAN BE, HOW MUCH FLOOR AREA THE BUILDING CAN HAVE, ETC.

HOUSTON , TEXAS – NO ZONING ORDINANCES

BUILDING CODES

WHAT IS A BUILDING CODE ?

WHY IS IT NECESSARY?

BUILDING CODES

PROTECT PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY. SET MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR:

CONSTRUCTION QUALITY STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY DURABILITY LIVEABLITY ACCESSIBILITY

FIRE SAFETY

INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE (IBC)

A MODEL BUILDING CODE THAT CITIES OR COUNTIES CAN ADOPT INSTEAD OF WRITING THEIR OWN CODES.

PUBLISHED BY A PRIVATE, NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION

IBC OCCUPANCY GROUPS

A1-A5: PUBLIC ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCY(THEATERS, LECTURE HALLS, NIGHTCLUBS, LIBRARIES, ETC.)

B: BUSINESS OCCUPANCY (BANKS, ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES, HIGHER EDUCATION FACILITIES, ETC.)

E: EDUCATIONAL OCCUPANCY (K-12 SCHOOLS) M: MERCANTILE (STORES, ETC.)

R1-R4: RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCY (SINGLE & MULTI- FAMILY, HOTELS, ETC.)

IBC OCCUPANCY GROUPS

WHY HAVE GROUPS?

IBC OCCUPANCY GROUPS

TO DISTINGUISH VARIOUS NEEDS FOR SAFETY (THINK ABOUT A HOSPITAL V. HOTEL V. SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCE)

IBC TYPES

AFTER OCCUPANCY GROUPS, THE IBC DEFINES CONSTRUCTION TYPES

TYPE I: MADE FROM HIGHLY FIRE RESISTANT, NON- COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS.

TYPE V: COMBUSTIBLE WOOD FRAMING – THE LEAST FIRE RESISTANT TYPE OF BUILDING

IBC ALLOWABLE HEIGHT AND BUILDING AREAS CHART(PP. 10)

CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS

ASTM INTERNATIONAL: (FORMERLY AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS)

ESTABLISHES SPECIFICATIONS FOR MATERIALS AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

“ASTM C150” REFERS TO “PORTLAND CEMENT”

THIS ALLOWS FOR ABBREVIATIONS IN BUILDING CODES AND STRUCTURAL SPECIFICATIONS

CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS

ANSI: (AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE)

DEVELOPS AND CERTIFIES NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS FOR A BROAD RANGE OF PRODUCTS INCLUDING WINDOWS AND MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF BUILDINGS.

CONSTRUCTING BUILDINGS

DESIGN/BID/BUILD CONSTRUCTION

TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION ORDER FOR RESIDENTIAL HOUSE

DESIGN FIRST, THEN CONSTRUCTION

CONSTRUCTING BUILDINGS

DESIGN/BUILD CONSTRUCTION

INTEGRATION OF DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION

UNIQUE, HIGHLY CUSTOM RESULTS.

NOT EVERYTHING HAS TO BE PLANNED IN ADVANCE

CONSTRUCTING BUILDINGS

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AT FEE

HIRED TO ASSIST OWNER

NOT DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR CONSTRUCTION WORK ITSELF

CONSTRUCTING BUILDINGS

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AT RISK

CM WORKS LIKE A GENERAL CONTRACTOR

RESPONSIBLE FOR CONSTRUCTION QUALITY, SCHEDULE & COSTS.

SCHEDULE

TEAM COLLABORATION

CONTRACTUAL RELATIONSHIPS AND WORKING RELATIONSHIPS TO FOSTER INTERACTION AMONG PROJECT MEMBERS

PARTICIPATION OF CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTOR IN DESIGN PHASES

OVERLAPPING OF DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION PHASES TO REDUCE TIME TO MARKET.

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